Corrections can be applied to give the illusion of a differently shaped nose. Contouring and highlighting can therefore be used on the nose to sculpt it. There are many different types of noses and vary due to length, size, and shape. Here is a chart.
Types of Noses
Use dark corrections on the tip and wings of the nose to make it straight.
If the nose is thin, create an effect of wider width by applying a light color to the sides.
A light-tone or neutral shade of lip color is recommended.
Highlight the tip of the nose.
Highlight the wings of the nose.
Shade the sides of the nose and the tip of the nose.
Remove hair from the space between the eyebrows, making them separate further so the nose appears smaller.
Apply a shade or two lighter than the skin tone to the all over nose area.
Apply a darker color to the sides of the nose, contouring the sides of the nose.
Highlight the center of the nose.
Make up the laterals with a light-tone color to give the illusion of more width.
Apply a dark color to the side of the deviation and a light color to the other side.
Where hairstyle is concerned, a fringe that leans to the contrary direction of the deviation will help detract attention from that zone.
Remember that practice makes perfect. If you would like in-person makeup lessons, use my contact page.
Correctors and concealers that brighten and lift are great products to apply underneath foundation for highlighting purposes (https://mymiamimua.com/2014/04/21/a-makeup-artists-kit-correctors-and-concealers/). However, highlighting can be done with many different products such as powders or shimmers. Basically, anything a shade or two lighter than the skin tone can be used to highlight the area. Highlighters are used to make something look larger, prominent, brighter, and bring a feature forward from a sunken area.
Contouring can be done by using a darker shade and applying it to create depth or to de-emphasize. Darker foundations, bronzers or powders can be used to contour and must be matte. Darker eye shadows can be used on the eyes to create depth in areas of the eyes.
Working with Different Face Shapes
The first thing to keep in mind when doing any shading or highlighting is that the “ideal” face shape is oval. Other reasons for highlighting and shading areas of the face depend on whether you want to emphasize or sink in areas of the face.
Types of Faces
Oval Shaped Face
The oval shaped face does not require much correction. Analyze the rest of the face and see if there are areas to be emphasized and other areas to create depth. Highlighting is usually done at the T-Zone: forehead, center of nose and chin. Darker products are normally used on the cheekbones and temples.
Heart Shaped Face
Heart shaped faces are wide at the forehead and come to a point at the chin. A general characteristic is an accented cheekbone and pointed chin.
Apply a light-tone color along the jaw line and cheekbones.
Apply a darker color starting from the outer part of the eye towards the temple.
Rouge must be applied starting from the top of the cheekbones and sweeping downwards.
Apply darker makeup at the hairline in the forehead area and at the tip of the chin.
Round Shaped Face
Round shaped faces need corrections to create volume and shapes.
Brush a dark shade starting at the base of the ear diagonally from the corner of the eye to the corner of the mouth. This will light up the upper part of the cheekbones and chin to create volume and depth.
Darken the jaw and the temples.
Do not make round-shaped shadows at the eyes.
Eyebrow shape must be lightly pointed, avoiding a curved shaped.
Avoid a hairstyle with volume at the laterals.
Square Shaped Face
The proportions of a square shaped face are the same in the upper zone as it is in the lower zone. In other words, the same width applies to the forehead and jaw.
Apply darker shades to the chin.
Apply depth to the extreme end of the sides of the face.
To smooth angular lines of the face, eye shadows should be rounded.
Oblong Shaped Face
If the shape of the face is oval but it is lengthened, then it is a long oval shaped face. This type of face is characterized by its long form and narrowness. Apply makeup in horizontal strokes wherever possible.
In the cheekbones, accentuate the roundness towards the tear duct.
Apply the makeup and in a natural fashion without making corrections.
Sweep rouge from the center of the cheekbone towards the temples.
If the oval is too long, apply a darker tone of makeup in the upper and lower parts.
With a long oval face shape, avoid an extremely long hair style and a one-side parting.
Try a hairstyle that wears volume at laterals.
Diamond Shaped Face
A diamond shaped face is notable for its angular shapes, prominent jawline, chin and cheekbones. A characteristic feature of a diamond face shape is that the chin is really straight or lightly pointed.
Apply a light-toned color in temples and cheekbones.
The blush must be of a dark color, avoiding light ones since they will further highlight the cheekbones.
Eyebrows should lean towards a round shape.
Direct a lock of hair to the jawline when choosing a hairstyle.
To understand how correctors work, it is important to understand how colors work. Below, you will find an image of the color wheel. Artists use the color wheel to understand not only where colors stand in the spectrum, but also which colors cancel each other out. In this case, the color directly across cancels and neutralizes the other color (ex. red with green).
The primary colors are yellow, red and blue. These colors are pure and cannot be obtained by combining other colors.
Secondary Colors are derived by mixing two primary colors. They are orange, green and purple. Maximum contrast is created when a primary color is combined on the face with its opposite secondary colors.
Intermediate (Tertiary) Colors
Mix a primary color with a secondary color to obtain intermediate colors such as turquoise and indigo (blue-violet).
The rainbow can be divided into two broad categories of colors: cool and warm. Cool and warm hues can be combined to yield neutral shades.
Cool colors are dominated by blue. They include blues, blue-greens, greens, grays, violets, purples and mauves. People whose skin tones are cool tend to have green, blue or gray eyes, fair skin, and ash blonde or white hair. Cool colors are associated with the ocean and are soothing. These colors are associated with winter.
Warm colors are dominated by yellow. They include browns, beiges, light greens, oranges, yellows, reds and golds. People with warm skin tones more often have brown eyes and brown, black, red or gold hair. Warm colors are linked to the sun and are associated with summer. Just be sure to avoid using warm colors on a person with irritated skin.
Blacks and white are neutral shades. They be used with either of the two color families. White augments while black diminishes.
Concealers and Correctors
If you’re still following along and understand color theory, it is time to move on to correctors and concealers. What is the difference? Correctors brighten while concealers lighten and lift. The first thing to keep in mind is that under-eye concealer and correctors are NOT meant for face corrections because of their brightening qualities. So, if you try to mask a blemish with under eye concealer, you are going to make it stand out instead! Finally, not everyone needs correctors while others may not need concealers. Concealers should be one or two shades lighter than the skin.
Light yellow-toned concealers neutralize red and blue discolorations and brightens the skin. This is ideal for those who need little coverage. However, when a regular concealer cannot fully cover darkness in the under-eye area, then it calls for a pink or peach corrector.
Pink tones neutralize dark under-eye areas for those with fair to light skin tones. Pink neutralizes blue tones as well as some light purple tones. It should be applied from the inner corner of the eye and underneath the eye, followed by a light yellow concealer and set in with a soft powder if the area is not dry.
Peach or dark peach are most commonly used to neutralize greens and purples for women with warmer skin tones. It should also be applied from the inner corner of the eye and underneath the eye. For women who have deep under-eye darkness, a corrector is usually enough. If the under-eye area is not too dark, then some may need a yellow-toned concealer to neutralize the shade and look natural.
Spot and Face Correctors
Spot correctors are not meant to lighten areas of the face and come in pink, peach and green and therefore can be used for general all over face and body purposes. Green will directly neutralize redness. The best thing to do is to follow up any spot correctors with a foundation so that it looks natural.
Cake- It’s important when layering colors on the face to make sure that the skin is properly hydrated and not overly saturated. If the face is dry and you use thick creams, the result will appear cakey. Check out the skincare guide for appropriate care before makeup.
Creasing- Not allowing moisturizer to dry or oily skin can sometimes cause creasing in creamy products. To avoid this, allow cream to dry and apply a light powder over the concealer/corrector to set.
Check back next week or subscribe to my blog for A Makeup Artist’s Kit: Foundation Guide for how to choose and use the right foundation colors and types.
Skin type is a very important consideration when applying makeup. You should think carefully about the skin and treat it like a canvas for makeup.
Each skin types requires its own special care and needs.
Normal skin looks healthy and has few or minor imperfections. The skin’s appearance should not look dull and should be soft to the touch.
The daily routine for normal skin should be to wash face twice daily- morning and night. Use an alcohol-free toner or “tonic” (Toner means it has alcohol in it. You can find some pH-balancing tonics that don’t use alcohol). Finally, seal and hydrate with a moisturizer. I also suggest to use a half mask at least once a week to remove any impurities.
Combination skin means that the face has dry zones and oily zones. Usually, the cheeks are normal to dry while the forehead, nose and chin (t-zone) has visible pores and tends to get shiny.
To care for combination skin, use an oil-free face wash two times a day. Toner is especially important for this skin type because it balances the pH of the skin. Finally, hydrate with a cream. You might consider a hydrating serum on cheeks before the moisturizer if they are very dry. Exfoliate the skin three times a week to remove extra impurities.
Here are some suggested products for combination skin:
Oily skin is characterized by many large, thick pores. Most often, blackheads and blemishes are present on the nose and chin because the sebaceous (oil) glands are stimulated. Climate and stress has a big effect on oily skin.
When most of us think of oily skin, our first reaction is to want to get the oil out by using all kinds of alcohols and astringents. This is not the case, because no one wants to dehydrate the skin to only cause more stress and problems. When we dehydrate the skin, the sebaceous glands overreact to make up for the lack of oils in the skin. This causes more oils and blemishes. Therefore, treat the skin gently!
Oily skin should be cared for twice daily using an oil-free face wash, a toner, spot treatment for any blemishes, and a lightweight oil-free moisturizer. *A tip to wash the face is to allow the water to run hot and the vapors to open up the pores and wash out any impurities. Then, switch the water to cold and splash the face with the cold water to rinse and close the pores.* Yes, moisturizer must be used twice daily in order to hydrate the skin and protect the skin from incoming pollutants in the air. Use a mask three times a week to remove any excess buildup.
Dry skin does not retain moisture because it produces oil naturally. However, dry skin is a bit dull in appearance and skin tones tend to redden. A challenge for the makeup artist is that cosmetics often wear off quickly on dry skin. Sometimes, dry skin can produce wrinkles and folds around the eyes and mouth. Dry skin can feel rough and dry to the touch and the skin tends to be sensitive.
It is important to take special care of dry skin and to use non-abrasive cream cleansers twice a day. Toners are usually not needed in this case unless it is a hydrating tonic, and serums are available to apply before applying a nutrient-rich moisturizers. In this case, all steps should be repeated at night but swap the day cream with a heavier night cream. Use a gentle exfoliating cleanser once a week to clear off dead skin cells and follow up with a hydrating mask.
Mature skin has folds, wrinkles and age spots due to the natural process of aging. In mature skin, cell regeneration does not occur as rapidly as it once did. In many cases, mature skin is dry.
To care for mature skin, use products that are gentle and hydrating. There are specific ingredients in serums and moisturizers that will help produce collagen and retain moisture to the skin. These ingredients are known as peptides (proteins that enhance collagen) and hyaluronic acid (locks and retains moisture to the skin). Use a gentle exfoliating wash three times a week to brush off dead skin cells and boost cell turn-over, or use a facial peel weekly to prevent discoloration and irregularities of the skin. SPF is an absolute must daily.
Sensitive Skin and Special Considerations
Sensitive skin can be fine in texture or it can be coarse. It is important to know if the person has any allergies or skin sensitivities that might make the skin react. In either case, sensitive skin will most likely be irritated by cosmetics, moisturizes and cleansers of any kind. Sensitive skin is prone to redness and can be itchy or blotchy.
Mild, non-perfumed cleansers, toners, moisturizers and cosmetics are required for sensitive skin. Dermatologists will recommend products to use for any skincare concerns and treatment. Sometimes products that are “all-natural” can lead to a skin reaction because they are plant-based and the skin can have an allergic reaction to it. When it comes to choosing the right products, it varies from product to product as with person to person, whether they tend to be non comedogenic or hypoallergenic. Choose what works best for you or your client!
Preparing the Skin for Makeup
After analyzing the skin, use the appropriate products to prepare the face before makeup. If done correctly, the skin will glow from underneath the makeup and the makeup will remain perfect.
Cleanse the face.
Use a toner to balance the pH of the skin and to prepare it to receive hydrating cream.
Apply eye cream gently around the eyes.
If using a serum, apply it before a hydrating cream.
Apply the face cream using small circular motions. Cover the whole face and neck, but don’t use too much product.
Hydrate the lips with lip balm.
Let the skin absorb the cream for a few seconds before applying makeup.
Your skin is now ready for makeup!
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Organization is very important when it comes to being a makeup artist especially for those makeup artists that can’t get enough makeup! From experience, we tend to have so much makeup (after all, we can’t help ourselves), that we forget we can’t haul it all in one kit. For this reason, I have a checklist of must-haves in a makeup kit, and anything extra is stored in containers. For the record, The Container Store is on my obsession list: check it out http://www.containerstore.com/shop/bath/cosmeticsOrganizers.
Makeup is one of the most artistic fields in aesthetics. Although there are some “rules” to follow, most of the work is left to the imagination of the makeup artist.
There are several factors to consider when applying makeup either to yourself or to someone else:
If applicable, any special requests of television, film, theater, etc.
As a makeup artist, there is so much more to learn than just makeup. You have to be open and ask a lot of questions to gain understanding of the person you’re doing makeup on. Including, but not limited to yourself, the person you are doing makeup on, your artistic view, and the view of directors, photographers, producers, etc.
If you are doing makeup on someone else, it is necessary to get to know their personality while you prepare the skin (which involves analyzing the skin, but more on that later). You can get to know someone by asking a lot of questions about their lifestyle and how much makeup they are used to wearing, what kind of look they would like to achieve (natural or dramatic) and if the makeup is for a specific occasion (wedding, daytime, night time event, photography). Notice their hair color and their eyes, and use that as a guide to choose eye shadows and the brow shade. It should not take more than 2 minutes to get to know someone well enough to do their makeup provided the right questions are asked. You want to make sure they will feel comfortable and that their personality shines through.
Makeup is also learning how to work with other people and share in a vision. Therefore, as an expert, the makeup artist needs to have knowledge in skin types, bone structure, lighting, and of course art: color theory, shading and highlighting.
Despite all the beauty rules and application tips, the most important thing to keep in mind is that the main ingredient of beauty is confidence. If you can feel confident in the skin you are in, then makeup should help to amplify and exude that confidence. When I apply makeup on my clients, I make sure that they not only look pretty, but feel pretty as well. Spreading confidence is one of the best gifts in the art of makeup.
Confidence is everything, but a little makeup can’t hurt Bobbi Brown