As with any other type of makeup, it is necessary to prepare the skin before applying any products. For television and photography, skin must be hydrated and taken care of so the makeup looks its absolute best.
I recommend using a stick/cream foundation for television and photography and avoid water based or luminous foundations that can cause the lighting to deflect poorly off the skin creating some not so great outcomes for camera. It is a great idea to keep in mind what type of lighting will be used. Also, the thicker the product, the more coverage it will give.
In makeup for photography, liquid foundation can be used so that it looks natural and light.
Dust the whole face with loose powder to ward off shine.
Corrections to the face can be made with pencil or with powdered shadows, leaving these well blended but defined.
The makeup artist must know how to apply makeup according to the type of program in which he or she is working. If the makeup is for journalism, the colors should be conservative and matte, making sure that they do not clash with the wardrobe. Any shading around the eyes must be smudged, making sure that the eye is both defined and clear.
However, if the shooting takes place at night, the makeup must be a bit more intense and the artist can apply bolder colors. Still, the foundation should always stay matte.
For photography makeup, the makeup is limitless, since we can make soft eyes for a natural look or pronounced shadows for a sophisticated image. For these assignments, the artist studies the photographer’s portfolio and style, the client’s wardrobe, and so on.
In both television and photography, false lashes are important because they thicken and extend the natural lashes and give the eye more of a “pop.”
The eyeliner should always be a shade or two darker than the eye color.
The brows in the case of television should look natural but intensified a bit for photography.
In the case of television, more blush is best! What can appear like a lot in real life looks very different on camera and can make a person look pale. However, this does not mean to make the person look completely unnatural. Take a couple of shots with the camera to see if blush needs to be intensified or more subtle. In any case, blush must emphasize the cheekbones.
The lips must be lined well, and it’s important they look symmetrical. In photos and television, asymmetries are more noticeable.
In all cases, the makeup must be appropriate to the visual medium, being aware of the studio lighting. Always confirm the type of makeup to be done with all concerned on the set, so as to be able to apply this to the makeup.
To understand how correctors work, it is important to understand how colors work. Below, you will find an image of the color wheel. Artists use the color wheel to understand not only where colors stand in the spectrum, but also which colors cancel each other out. In this case, the color directly across cancels and neutralizes the other color (ex. red with green).
The primary colors are yellow, red and blue. These colors are pure and cannot be obtained by combining other colors.
Secondary Colors are derived by mixing two primary colors. They are orange, green and purple. Maximum contrast is created when a primary color is combined on the face with its opposite secondary colors.
Intermediate (Tertiary) Colors
Mix a primary color with a secondary color to obtain intermediate colors such as turquoise and indigo (blue-violet).
The rainbow can be divided into two broad categories of colors: cool and warm. Cool and warm hues can be combined to yield neutral shades.
Cool colors are dominated by blue. They include blues, blue-greens, greens, grays, violets, purples and mauves. People whose skin tones are cool tend to have green, blue or gray eyes, fair skin, and ash blonde or white hair. Cool colors are associated with the ocean and are soothing. These colors are associated with winter.
Warm colors are dominated by yellow. They include browns, beiges, light greens, oranges, yellows, reds and golds. People with warm skin tones more often have brown eyes and brown, black, red or gold hair. Warm colors are linked to the sun and are associated with summer. Just be sure to avoid using warm colors on a person with irritated skin.
Blacks and white are neutral shades. They be used with either of the two color families. White augments while black diminishes.
Concealers and Correctors
If you’re still following along and understand color theory, it is time to move on to correctors and concealers. What is the difference? Correctors brighten while concealers lighten and lift. The first thing to keep in mind is that under-eye concealer and correctors are NOT meant for face corrections because of their brightening qualities. So, if you try to mask a blemish with under eye concealer, you are going to make it stand out instead! Finally, not everyone needs correctors while others may not need concealers. Concealers should be one or two shades lighter than the skin.
Light yellow-toned concealers neutralize red and blue discolorations and brightens the skin. This is ideal for those who need little coverage. However, when a regular concealer cannot fully cover darkness in the under-eye area, then it calls for a pink or peach corrector.
Pink tones neutralize dark under-eye areas for those with fair to light skin tones. Pink neutralizes blue tones as well as some light purple tones. It should be applied from the inner corner of the eye and underneath the eye, followed by a light yellow concealer and set in with a soft powder if the area is not dry.
Peach or dark peach are most commonly used to neutralize greens and purples for women with warmer skin tones. It should also be applied from the inner corner of the eye and underneath the eye. For women who have deep under-eye darkness, a corrector is usually enough. If the under-eye area is not too dark, then some may need a yellow-toned concealer to neutralize the shade and look natural.
Spot and Face Correctors
Spot correctors are not meant to lighten areas of the face and come in pink, peach and green and therefore can be used for general all over face and body purposes. Green will directly neutralize redness. The best thing to do is to follow up any spot correctors with a foundation so that it looks natural.
Cake- It’s important when layering colors on the face to make sure that the skin is properly hydrated and not overly saturated. If the face is dry and you use thick creams, the result will appear cakey. Check out the skincare guide for appropriate care before makeup.
Creasing- Not allowing moisturizer to dry or oily skin can sometimes cause creasing in creamy products. To avoid this, allow cream to dry and apply a light powder over the concealer/corrector to set.
Check back next week or subscribe to my blog for A Makeup Artist’s Kit: Foundation Guide for how to choose and use the right foundation colors and types.
Skin type is a very important consideration when applying makeup. You should think carefully about the skin and treat it like a canvas for makeup.
Each skin types requires its own special care and needs.
Normal skin looks healthy and has few or minor imperfections. The skin’s appearance should not look dull and should be soft to the touch.
The daily routine for normal skin should be to wash face twice daily- morning and night. Use an alcohol-free toner or “tonic” (Toner means it has alcohol in it. You can find some pH-balancing tonics that don’t use alcohol). Finally, seal and hydrate with a moisturizer. I also suggest to use a half mask at least once a week to remove any impurities.
Combination skin means that the face has dry zones and oily zones. Usually, the cheeks are normal to dry while the forehead, nose and chin (t-zone) has visible pores and tends to get shiny.
To care for combination skin, use an oil-free face wash two times a day. Toner is especially important for this skin type because it balances the pH of the skin. Finally, hydrate with a cream. You might consider a hydrating serum on cheeks before the moisturizer if they are very dry. Exfoliate the skin three times a week to remove extra impurities.
Here are some suggested products for combination skin:
Oily skin is characterized by many large, thick pores. Most often, blackheads and blemishes are present on the nose and chin because the sebaceous (oil) glands are stimulated. Climate and stress has a big effect on oily skin.
When most of us think of oily skin, our first reaction is to want to get the oil out by using all kinds of alcohols and astringents. This is not the case, because no one wants to dehydrate the skin to only cause more stress and problems. When we dehydrate the skin, the sebaceous glands overreact to make up for the lack of oils in the skin. This causes more oils and blemishes. Therefore, treat the skin gently!
Oily skin should be cared for twice daily using an oil-free face wash, a toner, spot treatment for any blemishes, and a lightweight oil-free moisturizer. *A tip to wash the face is to allow the water to run hot and the vapors to open up the pores and wash out any impurities. Then, switch the water to cold and splash the face with the cold water to rinse and close the pores.* Yes, moisturizer must be used twice daily in order to hydrate the skin and protect the skin from incoming pollutants in the air. Use a mask three times a week to remove any excess buildup.
Dry skin does not retain moisture because it produces oil naturally. However, dry skin is a bit dull in appearance and skin tones tend to redden. A challenge for the makeup artist is that cosmetics often wear off quickly on dry skin. Sometimes, dry skin can produce wrinkles and folds around the eyes and mouth. Dry skin can feel rough and dry to the touch and the skin tends to be sensitive.
It is important to take special care of dry skin and to use non-abrasive cream cleansers twice a day. Toners are usually not needed in this case unless it is a hydrating tonic, and serums are available to apply before applying a nutrient-rich moisturizers. In this case, all steps should be repeated at night but swap the day cream with a heavier night cream. Use a gentle exfoliating cleanser once a week to clear off dead skin cells and follow up with a hydrating mask.
Mature skin has folds, wrinkles and age spots due to the natural process of aging. In mature skin, cell regeneration does not occur as rapidly as it once did. In many cases, mature skin is dry.
To care for mature skin, use products that are gentle and hydrating. There are specific ingredients in serums and moisturizers that will help produce collagen and retain moisture to the skin. These ingredients are known as peptides (proteins that enhance collagen) and hyaluronic acid (locks and retains moisture to the skin). Use a gentle exfoliating wash three times a week to brush off dead skin cells and boost cell turn-over, or use a facial peel weekly to prevent discoloration and irregularities of the skin. SPF is an absolute must daily.
Sensitive Skin and Special Considerations
Sensitive skin can be fine in texture or it can be coarse. It is important to know if the person has any allergies or skin sensitivities that might make the skin react. In either case, sensitive skin will most likely be irritated by cosmetics, moisturizes and cleansers of any kind. Sensitive skin is prone to redness and can be itchy or blotchy.
Mild, non-perfumed cleansers, toners, moisturizers and cosmetics are required for sensitive skin. Dermatologists will recommend products to use for any skincare concerns and treatment. Sometimes products that are “all-natural” can lead to a skin reaction because they are plant-based and the skin can have an allergic reaction to it. When it comes to choosing the right products, it varies from product to product as with person to person, whether they tend to be non comedogenic or hypoallergenic. Choose what works best for you or your client!
Preparing the Skin for Makeup
After analyzing the skin, use the appropriate products to prepare the face before makeup. If done correctly, the skin will glow from underneath the makeup and the makeup will remain perfect.
Cleanse the face.
Use a toner to balance the pH of the skin and to prepare it to receive hydrating cream.
Apply eye cream gently around the eyes.
If using a serum, apply it before a hydrating cream.
Apply the face cream using small circular motions. Cover the whole face and neck, but don’t use too much product.
Hydrate the lips with lip balm.
Let the skin absorb the cream for a few seconds before applying makeup.
Your skin is now ready for makeup!
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Organization is very important when it comes to being a makeup artist especially for those makeup artists that can’t get enough makeup! From experience, we tend to have so much makeup (after all, we can’t help ourselves), that we forget we can’t haul it all in one kit. For this reason, I have a checklist of must-haves in a makeup kit, and anything extra is stored in containers. For the record, The Container Store is on my obsession list: check it out http://www.containerstore.com/shop/bath/cosmeticsOrganizers.
Makeup is one of the most artistic fields in aesthetics. Although there are some “rules” to follow, most of the work is left to the imagination of the makeup artist.
There are several factors to consider when applying makeup either to yourself or to someone else:
If applicable, any special requests of television, film, theater, etc.
As a makeup artist, there is so much more to learn than just makeup. You have to be open and ask a lot of questions to gain understanding of the person you’re doing makeup on. Including, but not limited to yourself, the person you are doing makeup on, your artistic view, and the view of directors, photographers, producers, etc.
If you are doing makeup on someone else, it is necessary to get to know their personality while you prepare the skin (which involves analyzing the skin, but more on that later). You can get to know someone by asking a lot of questions about their lifestyle and how much makeup they are used to wearing, what kind of look they would like to achieve (natural or dramatic) and if the makeup is for a specific occasion (wedding, daytime, night time event, photography). Notice their hair color and their eyes, and use that as a guide to choose eye shadows and the brow shade. It should not take more than 2 minutes to get to know someone well enough to do their makeup provided the right questions are asked. You want to make sure they will feel comfortable and that their personality shines through.
Makeup is also learning how to work with other people and share in a vision. Therefore, as an expert, the makeup artist needs to have knowledge in skin types, bone structure, lighting, and of course art: color theory, shading and highlighting.
Despite all the beauty rules and application tips, the most important thing to keep in mind is that the main ingredient of beauty is confidence. If you can feel confident in the skin you are in, then makeup should help to amplify and exude that confidence. When I apply makeup on my clients, I make sure that they not only look pretty, but feel pretty as well. Spreading confidence is one of the best gifts in the art of makeup.
Confidence is everything, but a little makeup can’t hurt Bobbi Brown